I have been a buy and drink right away wine drinker for a few years. I recently built a new house with a wine closet in the formal dining room that holds 120 bottles not temp or humidity controlled. I did this before I was aware of the proper storage of red wine. A friend of mine has a very large cellar that I can store plenty of special bottles in if needed. My wife and I probably drink 2 to 3 bottles a week so if I fill this sucker how long will the wine be good at a constant 70 to 72 degrees, decent humidity and no direct sun hitting the closet? My friend seemed to think a couple of years would be fine but my internet research has made me nervous to keep anything stored this way longer than 3 months. I hate to not use this thing after I spent good money on it but at the same time I don't want to ruin the wine I buy. What do you think?

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The key is constant temperature. If you can keep the wine at a reasonably constant 70-72 the consensus is that it'll do a lot better than cycling between 58 and 78 every day.

Personally I'd say that decent reds and stickies should keep for a year or two at a constant 70-72, but I wouldn't want to store whites or sparklers that way.
The answer, Jepk, is that no one knows exactly. What's happening at higher temps is simply faster ageing/oxidation. How this affects the wine depends on the build of the wine, and of course, your personal taste preferences.

That said, I wouldn't be concerned with even a couple of years of the wine hanging around at that temp. Lots of wholesale distributors, retailers, and restaurants have similar storage, so you might be compounding imperfections, but if you buy young wine anyway, you'll be just fine.

If you buy heavily structured (or prestige) wines, on the other hand, you may even be rewarded by seeing those wines evolve and soften up slightly ahead of a 58 degree projected ageing curve (if you store them long enough)!

So, if you're not looking at cellaring wine for a decade and more, I'd not worry about it. If you are, I'd just plan on popping a few corks earlier rather than later.

Ageing wine is a crapshoot in the best case, so just be aware that yours are gonna age a little quicker than guys' whose are kept cooler.
It really depends on the wines and their age when you buy them.
I can keep young Sauvignon Blancs in my passive cellar at winter 58 and summer 63 with a slow transition between for several years during which some age adds some complexity.
I have some good 2002 Sancerres and Pouilly Fumes which have been drinking well for several years and are still drinking beautifully plus a few 2000s which are also still fine.
I don't know what Sauvignon Blancs you refer to but if they are from a recent vintage, say 2006, and normally hold for say 3-4 years plus in cooler conditions I would expect them to last at least a couple of years in the conditions you describe which are not extreme by any means.

As others have said, temperature and aging is not a precise science other than directionally but there are some temperature/time studies available on the internet if you want more reassurance.

Any young red made to age should last much longer although they will be ready earlier with a slightly different profile than they would have stored around 55.

I almost always buy my wine in case lots and start to try my first bottles, reds and whites, at the front end of their drinking windows and keep testing slowly until they approach their peak. In that way I know relatively early if I have bought duff wine and, if it's good, how it develops over time.

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