I'm new to wine, but this is what I heard to be the range(from driest to sweetest):
Trocken (bone dry)
Halb-trocken ("half" dry -- still dry)
Kabinett (harvested on time)
Spatlese (late picked)
Auslese ("out picked", picked very late)
Beerenauslese (even riper)
Trocken Beerenauslese (look like raisins!)
Eis Wein("Ice Wine")Frozen Grapes (Extremely sweet)
A person who knows a lot about wine can correct my mistakes; but I think its generally on track.
Someone else will have to answer the food pairing question. I'd like to know the answer to that too.